In the process, he traveled between 50,000 and 75,000 miles a year, crisscrossing the nation to oversee as many as 450 cases at a time. During his 24 years on the high court, Associate Justice Marshall consistently challenged discrimination based on race or sex, opposed the death penalty and vehemently defended affirmative action. Take to the air with a drone, These World’s Fair sites reveal a history of segregation. “What marked those dissents was a candor that cut through legal abstractions to the social reality and human suffering underneath,” wrote legal scholar Kathleen M. Sullivan. George H.W. Marshall ardently opposed capital punishment, helping strike down the death penalty in Furman v. Georgia in 1972. It'll be a historic event when the first Black, South Asian and female vice president takes her oath from the first Latina justice, using Thurgood Marshall's Bible. In 1934, Houston joined the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) as its first special counsel with a mission: To help end educational discrimination in the United States. The next great whiskey trail is not where you think it is. Five years later, Marshall would become the first Black man to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court. But the case was not taken to the Supreme Court, so it set a precedent in Maryland only. Discover Mars. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Can things change? This vibrant sanctuary underscores the stakes. “This Court should make it clear that that is not what our Constitution stands for.”. She was among the plaintiffs in the landmark Brown v. Board of Education case—led by Thurgood Marshall—in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled segregated schools to be unconstitutional. On Tuesday Harris tweeted, "When I raise my right hand and take the oath of office tomorrow, I carry with me two heroes who'd speak up for the voiceless and help those in … In his dissent to Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, a 1978 case in which the Court ruled against the university’s use of affirmative action racial quotas in its admissions process, Marshall included a litany of statistics on the social and health disparities faced by Black Americans. Linda Brown was in the third grade when she was denied admission to a white-only school in Topeka, Kansas. That job belongs to you and me.”, Copyright © 1996-2015 National Geographic SocietyCopyright © 2015-2021 National Geographic Partners, LLC. The vice president-elect said in a video posted to Twitter that she viewed Marshall as “one of the main reasons I wanted to be a … How the world’s largest rhino population dropped by 70 percent—in a decade, The unintended environmental benefit of Cuba's isolation, Same force behind Texas deep freeze could drive prolonged heat waves. Guinea was the sole French West African colony to opt for complete independence, rather than membership in the French Community, and soon ...read more, Thirty-year-old British Major John Andre is hanged as a spy by U.S. military forces in Tappan, New York, on October 2, 1780. He won nearly all of these cases, including a groundbreaking victory in 1954’s Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation violated the equal rights clause of the 14th Amendment to the Constitution and was thus illegal. At Howard, Marshall was mentored by the law school’s then vice-dean, Charles Hamilton Houston, a prominent Black attorney and founding member of the National Bar Association who encouraged Marshall to use the law as a tool to create an equal society. In May 1954, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that the 14th Amendment, which provides all U.S. citizens equal protection under the law, prohibits segregating public schools by race, because segregated schools are “inherently unequal.” Though states dragged their feet to implement the ruling, it set a national precedent and helped spark the civil rights movement. He suffered constant headaches during the ...read more, On October 2, 1835, the growing tensions between Mexico and Texas erupt into violence when Mexican soldiers attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, sparking the Texan war for independence. Marshall died of heart failure at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, on January 24, 1993, at the age of 84. Then, in 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson named Marshall the first Black solicitor general, designated to represent the federal government in Supreme Court cases. Among the most important majority opinions he authored were Stanley v. Georgia in 1969, a First Amendment case that decriminalized possessing pornographic materials, and Bounds v. Smith in 1977, which ruled that state prisons should provide law libraries or legal assistance to prisoners. These 6 numbers define the climate challenge in a changing U.S. Thurgood Marshall poses in his New York residence on September 11, 1962, after the Senate confirmation of his nomination to the U.S. Court of Appeals. All Rights Reserved. Although Marshall joined the Supreme Court as part of a liberal majority under Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Court had changed by the time he had gained the seniority to write significant opinions. Civil Rights,” Marshall was one of the architects of the civil rights movement—a passionately progressive attorney who helped end school segregation. What's next for these transgender asylum seekers stranded in Mexico? His parents had named him Thoroughgood after his paternal grandfather, who was born into slavery and gained his freedom by escaping from the South, but Marshall shortened the name in grade school because he disliked its length. But can we make room for them? In 1991, Marshall retired just hours after delivering a dissent in a death penalty case. Marshall won and Maryland was forced to integrate the law school. He also supported women’s reproductive rights in the landmark 1973 case, Roe v. Wade. Bush all appointed justices with conservative legal views, and Marshall became known for his eloquent dissents, which criticized his colleagues’ failures to fully address racial and other injustices and pointed out the real-world ramifications of their opinions. Harris called Marshall "one of my heroes and inspirations" in her memoir. Bringing Black people into mainstream American life “should be a state interest of the highest order,” Marshall wrote. In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson appointed Marshall to be solicitor general of the United States. Stereotypes have fueled a tourism boom in Europe’s icy North. On July 2, 2020, Harris posted a video on Twitter where she said that. The two have worked together as prosecutors. Decades before Thurgood Marshall was sworn into the U.S. Supreme Court on October 2, 1967, the man who would become its first … Vice President-elect Kamala Harris has announced that she will be sworn in by Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor, the country’s first Latina Justice, and will use two Bibles from people who helped shape her life: Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall and her childhood mentor Regina Shelton, according to ABC News.. She’ll also use two Bibles for the swearing-in, one of which belonged to Thurgood Marshall… Yet Marshall’s tenure is perhaps best remembered for his stirring dissent against his increasingly conservative colleagues’ dismantling from the mid-1970s through the 1980s of the equal-protection laws he had championed. Chief Justice Earl Warren swears in Thurgood Marshall, the first Black justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. Visualizing 500,000 deaths from COVID-19 in the U.S. Harris To Be Sworn In By Justice Sotomayor, Holding Thurgood Marshall's Bible, At Inauguration "Our nation is stronger because of his powerful … The great-grandson of an enslaved person, Marshall was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1908. All rights reserved. Decades before Thurgood Marshall was sworn into the U.S. Supreme Court on October 2, 1967, the man who would become its first Black justice had already transformed American law. Yellow penguin spotted in Antarctica—here's why it's so rare, A lemur died from tuberculosis—a likely victim of the illegal pet trade, Nearly 5,000 sea turtles rescued from freezing waters on Texas island, Selfie-taking tourists risk giving wild gorillas COVID-19, other diseases, Monkeys still forced to pick coconuts in Thailand despite controversy, A black-footed ferret has been cloned, a first for a U.S. endangered species. As more people are fully vaccinated, certain activities will become less risky, but experts still recommend holding on to precautions for the near future. On June 13, 1967, Johnson nominated Marshall to the U.S. Supreme Court, calling the move “the right thing to do, the right time to do it, the right man and the right place.” The Senate confirmed Marshall two months later on August 30, 1967, and he took his seat when the Court session opened October 2. BY ARIS FOLLEY - 01/16/21 03:18 PM EST Vice President-elect Kamala Harris will be sworn into office by Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor on a bible that once belonged to first the African American to serve on the Supreme Court, Thurgood Marshall, a source familiar with the plans told The Hill. Sotomayor once refferred to Thurgood Marshall (the first Black Supreme Court Justice) as one of her heroes. VP Harris has chosen to be sworn in using two bibles. Sign up for more inspiring photos, stories, and special offers from National Geographic. On October 2, 1967, Thurgood Marshall was sworn in as a United States Supreme Court justice.Long before President Lyndon Johnson appointed him the first African American Supreme Court justice, Marshall had established himself as the nation’s leading legal civil rights advocate.. George E.C. He argued 32 cases before the Supreme Court, winning 29 of them, and participated in hundreds of other cases in lower courts nationwide. 3-ton parts of Stonehenge may have been carried from earlier monuments, How ancient astronomy mixed science with mythology, This ivory relic reveals the colonial power dynamic between Benin and Portugal. Thurgood Marshall, the great-grandson of slaves, became the first Black Supreme Court Justice in 1967, but his fight for civil rights started long before he … Unauthorized use is prohibited. The organization’s legal goal, developed by Houston and his growing team of civil rights lawyers, was to undermine segregation by making it onerous and unaffordable for states. Marshall was even the reason she attended Howard University. Visit Insider's homepage for more stories. Younger children will be next. State graduate and professional schools were the starting point as it was easier to demonstrate there were no comparable alternatives for Black students to receive the specialized education they offered. Why Do 9 Justices Serve on the Supreme Court. Sentenced to death, but innocent: These are stories of justice gone wrong. Russian peasants in the path of Hitler’s army employ a “scorched-earth” policy. Republican presidents Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, and George H.W. The Warsaw Uprising ends on October 2, 1944, with the surrender of the surviving Polish rebels to German forces. Johnson was eager to change that—and cement his civil rights legacy after having signed both the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 into law. Mars has fascinated us for centuries. This civil rights leader volunteered to challenge segregation in higher education. Back in July, Harris shared a video on Twitter noting that the nation is stronger because of Thurgood Marshall’s powerful voice. Sign up now to learn about This Day in History straight from your inbox. Harris and Sotomayor both worked as prosecutors and Sotomayor once referred to Thurgood Marshall, the first Black Supreme Court Justice as one of her greatest heroes, similarly how others have described the vice president-elect. As the NAACP’s chief counsel from 1938 to 1961, he argued more than a dozen cases before the U.S. Supreme Court, successfully challenging racial segregation, most notably in public education. Known as “Mr. Harris To Be Sworn In By Justice Sotomayor, Holding Thurgood Marshall's Bible, At Inauguration "Our nation is stronger because of his powerful … (This civil rights leader volunteered to challenge segregation in higher education.). Charles Carl Roberts IV, a 32-year-old milk truck driver from a ...read more. The former French colony of Guinea declares its independence on October 2, 1958, with Sekou Toure as the new nation’s first leader. It's in 'The Iliad.'. Here's why filling a Supreme Court vacancy in an election year is so complicated. The world’s wetlands are slipping away. Marshall died in 1993 at age 84. Can carbon capture make flying more sustainable? When he joined the bench, the Supreme Court was fairly liberal. As appointments by a largely Republican White House changed the ideology of the Supreme Court, Marshall found his liberal views increasingly in the minority. Marshall and his colleagues planned to use the precedents to strike at segregation in a much more controversial arena: public elementary and high schools. Years of archaeological research now suggest that Neolithic Britons lugged massive elements of the iconic monument from far-flung reaches of the island. On this day in 1967, Thurgood Marshall was sworn into the United States Supreme Court, making him the first African American to hold one of the prestigious seats. Jim Crow laws created 'slavery by another name. Harris chose Sotomayor for the task, according to a person familiar with the decision. Since there was no comparable law school for Black students in Maryland, Marshall argued, the all-white school must integrate. As we learn more, it keeps us in suspense. From ‘Herbie the Love Bug’ to punch buggy, the Beetle remains iconic in Mexico, ‘It really is like flying.’ Explore wild skating on nature’s ice, The legendary community that fought for its freedom in Jamaica, Why this salty Massachusetts coastal town hooks artists, Families are leading a new wave for Black travelers, Winter is prime time for watching bald eagles—here’s how, As Lunar New Year approaches, many Asians worry about future journeys, Want dreamy winter photos? The tour’s intense schedule–8,000 miles in 22 days–cost Wilson his health. During his 24-year tenure on the Supreme Court, Marshall participated in more than 3,600 cases; he dissented in more than one in four—including more than 150 dissents to the court’s refusal to hear death penalty appeals. Kennedy managed to name Marshall to the position through a recess appointment, which the Senate confirmed the following year. In 1961, he got the chance for a change when President John F. Kennedy, eager to align his new Democratic administration with the nation’s star civil rights attorney, nominated Marshall to the U.S. Court of Appeals. Bush replaced him with Clarence Thomas, a conservative Black justice. Harris has expressed admiration for both Sotomayor and Marshall. Marshall was a lawyer, civil rights activist, and … In 1936 Marshall went to work for the NAACP full-time. ), Though Marshall left an enduring mark on the legal system he helped transform, he knew it was only part of the work of ending discrimination and injustice. Adolescents are being tested now. The rebels, who ...read more, On October 2, 1985, actor Rock Hudson, 59, becomes the first major U.S. celebrity to die of complications from AIDS. His first-choice law school, the University of Maryland School of Law, did not admit Black students, so he attended Howard University School of Law, another historically Black university, in Washington, D.C., graduating first in his class in 1933. Marshall grew up during the so-called Jim Crow era, the century from the end of the Civil War until 1968 when state laws enshrined—and the Supreme Court upheld—racial discrimination and segregation in nearly every walk of life. 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