Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. First, let's dispel the age-old rumor that Caesar was the original, or at … This was considered an act of war as the Rubicon was the border between the province of Gaul and Rome. He showed a human spiritual greatness in his generosity to defeated opponents, which was partly responsible for his assassination. He Wasn't Born by C-Section. All Caesar’s speeches and writings, lost and extant, apparently served political purposes. 3. any emperor. Mark, Joshua J. Imperial Rome describes the period of the Roman Empire from 27 B.C. At this time, Pharnaces, son of Mithridates, fomented rebellion in the east and Caesar rose to crush it. At the Battle of Alesia, in 52 BCE, Caesar defeated the Gallic leader Vercingetorix and completed the conquest of Gaul. His initiatives were supported by Crassus’ wealth and Pompey’s soldiers, thus solidly aligning The First Triumvirate with the Populare faction. Back in Rome, however, The First Triumvirate had disintegrated. He was now effectively the sovereign of the province of Gaul with all the attendant wealth at his disposal. The mark of Caesar’s genius in his writings is that though they were written for propaganda they are nevertheless of outstanding literary merit. By liquidating the scandalous and bankrupt rule of the Roman nobility, he gave the Roman state—and with it the Greco-Roman civilization—a reprieve that lasted for more than 600 years in the East and for more than 400 years in the relatively backward West. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. As long as Caesar was a public servant he was safe from prosecution by his Optimate enemies for his legal indiscretions but, once his consulship ended, he was sure to be indicted. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Caesar was great beyond—and even in conflict with—the requirements of his political ambition. Ancient History Encyclopedia. He prepared his seven books on the Gallic War for publication in 51 bce when he still had serious revolts in Gaul on his hands, and he wrote his books on the civil war and his Anticato in the hectic years between 49 and 44 bce. Born in 100 BC, Caesar inherited his name from a prestigious family with ancient pedigree. Julius Caesar is one of the most important figures in the history of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. Julius Caesar. During his reign as dictator from 49-44 BC, Julius Caesar had a number of notable impacts on the city of Rome. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. Through a combination of political savvy, charisma and backhanded dealings, he … Later Mark Antony, in a clever speech at Caesar's funeral, turns the Roman people against Brutus and Cassius, and a war begins. By allowing her to visit him in Rome in 46 bce, he flouted public feeling and added to the list of tactless acts that, cumulatively, goaded old comrades and amnestied enemies into assassinating him. Caesar, arriving in Egypt in pursuit of Pompey, claimed outrage over Pompey’s death, proclaimed martial law, and took over the royal palace. Deciding that belonging to the priesthood would bring the most benefit to the family, he managed to have himself nominated as the new High Priest of Jupiter. Gaius julius Caesar or Gaius Julius Caesar in modern English spelling (13 July, 100 BC – 15 March, 44 BC) was a Roman military and political leader. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. Crassus was killed in battle against the Parthians in 54 BCE and, that same year, Julia died in childbirth. Caesar married Calpurnia, the daughter of a wealthy and powerful Populare senator, and married his daughter Julia to Pompey to further cement their arrangements. Julius Caesar was a Roman general and politician who named himself dictator of the Roman Empire, a rule that lasted less than one year before he was famously assassinated by political rivals in 44 B.C. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. His physical energy was of the same order. Caesar ranked as a masterly public speaker in an age in which he was in competition first with Hortensius and then with Cicero. https://www.ancient.eu/Julius_Caesar/. In this, as in his time as a soldier, Caesar was successful and, when Sulla died, he decided to return to Rome and try his luck as an orator (a modern-day lawyer). Cite This Work Suburra (usually spelled Subura in antiquity) was an area of the city of Rome, Italy located below the Murus Terreus on the Carinae. Gaius Julius Caesar (/ ˈsiːzər / SEE-zər, Latin : [ˈɡaːi.ʊs ˈjuːli.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar]; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the … Caesar’s description of Britain at the time of his invasions is the first coherent account extant. (2011, April 28). He is said to have repeatedly told them that, upon his release, he would hunt them down and have them crucified for the affront to his family and personal dignity and this threat the pirates understood as a joke. When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. Probably Caesar looked upon these as trivial recreations. 4. a tyrant or dictator. 2. a title of the Roman emperors from Augustus to Hadrian, and later of the heirs presumptive. Rise to Power Although he was born into the Julian gens, one of the oldest patrician families in Rome, Caesar was always a member of the democratic or popular party. He realized that Cato, in giving his life for his cause (46 bce), had made himself posthumously into a much more potent political force than he had ever been in his lifetime. Rising now in prominence in Rome, Caesar had enough prestige to effectively support Gnaeus Pompeius (later known as Pompey the Great) for a generalship. According to the historian Durant, he then secretly sent for Cleopatra VII, co-regent with Ptolomey XIII who had been deposed and was in exile, who had herself smuggled through enemy lines rolled up inside a carpet (according to other sources, Cleopatra took the initiative herself, recognizing in Caesar her only hope to regain the throne). To some the Roman citizenry was falling victim to moral decay. His generosity to defeated opponents, magnanimous though it was, did not win their affection. The army of Antony wins, and Brutus and Cassius kill themselves. Another field in which Caesar’s genius went far beyond the requirements of his political ambition was his writings. (Modern historians view the ancient estimate of 4,700 opponents as a gross exaggeration.) He used part of his growing wealth from Gallic loot to hire political agents in Rome. It lies in the dip between the southern end of the Viminal and the western end of the Esquiline hills. As a priest not only had to be of patrician stock, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his engagement to a plebian girl and married the patrician, Cornelia, daughter of a high profile and influential member of the Populares, Lucius Cinna. Julius Caesar—facts and information Julius Caesar transformed Rome from a republic to an empire, grabbing power through ambitious political reforms. There was street violence and rioting. He ruled without regard to the senate, usually simply telling them which laws he wanted passed and how quickly, in an effort to consolidate and increase his own personal power. Yet, though not lovable, Caesar was and is attractive, indeed fascinating. Related Content The prolongation of the life of the Greco-Roman civilization had important historical effects. Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. 13 Dec 2020. to A.D. 476. As a priest not only had to be of patrician stock, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his engagement to a plebian girl and married the patrician, Cornelia, daughter of a high profile and influential … Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Julius Caesar: see Caesar, Julius Caesar, Julius (Caius Julius Caesar), 100? Julius Caesar is a name synonymous with Rome. Julius Caesar conquered Gaul between 58 and 50 bce and invaded Britain in 55 or 54 bce, thereby bringing the island into close contact with the Roman world. There is no doubt of Caesar’s heterosexual affairs, many of them with married women. He dodged proscription and pirates, changed the calendar and the army. Roman historian Suetonius, Julius Caesar spoke mainly Greek and not Latin, as was the case with most patricians at the time. At Alexandria, probably aged 53, he saved himself from sudden death by his prowess as a swimmer. When he was young, he got great … In doing so, he initiated the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire. Caligula "Little Boots" Known as "Caligula" ('Little Boots'), Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was … Caesar was a prominent politician, military general and leader in Rome, and had a profound impact on its history. The concept of appealing to the people for support, rather than seeking approval from the Roman Senate or the other Patricians, would work well for Caesar later in life. But for this the Hellenic element might not have been present in sufficient strength to make its decisive impact on Christianity and Islam. Admittedly a womanizer himself, he dismissed his wife for suspicious behavior, wrote (bad) poetry and a third person account of the wars he waged, started a civil war, conquered the area of modern France, and made a stab at Britain. 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