Some of those challenges include leadership crisis, corruption, insurgency and terrorism amongst others. The contention of the paper is that effective and proactive foreign policy articulation and implementation have profound effects on international image which could galvanize or impact on national transformation. The problems of Anglo-American relationship have often been downplayed. It examines the broader regional implications of conflict due to refugee flows, proliferation of weapons and spill over effects of insecurity. A sample size of 399 was derived out of the 348,990 study population using the Taro Yamane. Aside the fact that this is not good for a country that pursues an ambitious external agenda and incongruent with its stature in global politics; it also makes the concept and reality of national interest susceptible to personalized interpretations, manipulations and distortions by the different political regimes. “a country’s foreign policy revolves around its national interests. outside Africa. Christopher Hill, The Changing Politics of Foreign Policy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Secondly, Nigeria lacked the economic infrastructure to use economy as a major instrument of diplomatic engagement. Nigeria is not and cannot be an exception to this. Services . Pre Theories And Theories Of Foreign Policy Making books. Social. A study in Nigeria’s foreign policy over time has quite often under scored the potency of its domestic contents. Nigeria's foreign policy under the Buhari administration was essentially "Afro- centric," and premised on the theory of 'concentric circles" which reoriented national priorities in external relations to questions of the need to maintain good neighborly relations with Niger, Benin, Cameroon, Ghana and Chad. -http://jesoc.com/wpcontent/uploads/2016/12/KC5_211.pdf, Overview of National Interest, Continuities and Flaws in Nigeria Foreign Policy, Ade-Ibijola, Aderemi Opeyemi. “Africa is the Cornerstone of Nigeria’s foreign policy” while the question of African United had become an “article of finth (Jibril, 2004). And his supposed fight against terroris, aim is; fight corruption, economic develop, fight against terrorism. Amity’s flexibility could also limit its effectiveness as a collaborative partnership. Download in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format for read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. The key question of foreign policy and international relations is how you examine state behaviour. Damilola and the theoretical model developed by Charles F. Hermann in his article "Changing Course: When Governments Choose to Redirect Foreign Policy", attempting to answer the following question: which are the most influential factors in shaping Nigeria"s foreign policy since independence? Nigeria has an ambitious foreign policy but an ambiguous, unscripted, not well defined and inconsistent national interest. The, affirmative action‟s projected vividly the citizen centred. Why do states behave the way they do is the question that theories of international relations and theories of foreign policy are trying to answer. At least since the end of World War II, foreign policy thinking has been dominated by a realist (or neorealist) perspective in which states are taken as … It was often the first step toward a formal alliance, but it did not constitute a binding agreement in itself. • *Hill, Christopher 2003: The Changing Politics of Foreign Policy, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan • Hook, Steven 2002: Comparative Foreign Policy: Adaptation Strategies of the Great and Emerging Powers, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. • Rosenau, James 1966: Pre-theories and Theories of Foreign Policy, in R. B. Farrell (Hg. A Discourse on Peace and Security in Africa, Conceptualisation of regional instability in Sahel: modelling ABM-AfriLand-Rebel Approach, FOREIGN POLICY, INTERNATIONAL IMAGE AND NATIONAL TRANSFORMATION: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE, Nigeria's Foreign Policy and Codification of National Interest: A Prescriptive Analysis, Shifting the Paradigm in Nigeria’s Foreign Policy: Goodluck Jonathan and Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020, Nigerian Foreign Policy and Global Image: A Critical Assessment of Goodluck Jonathan’s Administration, An Introduction to Nigerian Government and Politics, EDUCATION AS A VIABLE SOFT POWER INITIATIVE IN NIGERIA’S FOREIGN POLICY IMPLEMENTATION: THE NIGERIAN FOREIGN SERVICE ACADEMY AS A CASE STUDY, Reparation a morale justice for Africa: the Benin (Nigeria) in perspective, How Enemies Become Friends: The Sources of Stable Peace. Boston University Libraries. q$_iÉ¤
Z£Ì¯¬dYK8ÓJí,qsG»±ù# '1¿'va #4Ù!0öÌ`F The emergence of terrorism in Nigeria owing to the rise of Islamic fundamentalism in Northern Nigeria has greatly undermined the country’s foreign policy drive. London: Macmillian. atomic matters and that everything was ran by the government or the Cabinet or the inner circle of the Cabinet. ûøiÓ4±ãáíyÁ`0Iaó+F Both the Anglo-American “special relationship” and atomic collaboration were more complex issues than has been presented in previous research. Introduction. qÙA£Ñ3É4 ÷\itU¦ÄïOVÉj,6»ÞdV»Ån-V«S»`\2hÔDNÔÚE(õ:Ñh5R;¿:ê Ïü0ÆÞ%$ÄÔÛ2±ã\eÁ`0IaÏf¤ÏThµzr&ä+^«3S°ÊÙmii6«Ãa0;lî4Õf±¥Ù3íi^È%&½hÑé-ºtÙb1õ³çY©
vÜ`âÆÞ%$ÄüÊ:±ã. Occasional Paper Series (SAIIA) No, https://www.modernghana.com/news/354264/nigeria, International Image and National Transformation: A. government and politics. Conceptualising national interest in nigerian foreign policy: A focus on abacha regime, Abdulrasheed Adamu, Muhammad bin Muda, and These conceptualizations are often regime specific and borne out of a psychological hunger to carve a … impact of Nigeria’s foreign policy in relation with other States. Diplomacy, not economic interdependence, is the currency of peace; concessions and strategic accommodation promote the mutual trust needed to build an international society. 3, It does not suggest what the " interests " should be, but argues for intelligible national interest for direction, focus and attention to topmost priorities in the country " s external relations. The probability for carrying out such acts is very high because Nigeria " s national interest lacks proper codification and documentation. A comparative study of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy underObasanjo Military and civilian administration (1976 – … Foreign Policy: Changes under Vladimir, foreign-policy-changes-under-vladimir-putin/, http://dspace.africaportal.org/jspui/bitstream/12345678, 9/29853/1/An%20analysis%20of%20Nigerian%20poli, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309391029_, Nigeria%27s_Foreign_Policy_and_Codification_of_N, nigerian-foreign-policy-advantages-and-disadvantage, https://greenthesis.wordpress.com/2012/10/23/critical. This view has been repeated without any critical evaluation by other historians ever since. A. Like every other sovereign country of the world, Nigeria " s national interests have been largely determined and defined by the various leaderships that have over the years ruled the country. Using the decision-making theory overwhelming success (Ogidan.P. This apparent look of focus has led to a chronic inability to provide a base for Nigeria’s foreign policy as was the case in other countries of the world. But on the other hand, Olusanya and Akindele (1986), Nigeria"s national interests are; the, All figure content in this area was uploaded by Stephen Osaherumwen Idahosa, All content in this area was uploaded by Stephen Osaherumwen Idahosa on Nov 13, 2017, An Analysis of the Nigerian Foreign Policy: A, through the analysis of Ogidan.P. This paper thus makes a case for the codification and documentation of Nigeria " s national interest. For students of foreign policy, the linkage theory is an elementary explanation of how internal factors help in shaping and giving definition to the quality and direction of foreign policy. Nigerian Foreign Policy, foreign relations. Kupchan demonstrates that similar social orders, and similar ethnicities, races, or religions help nations achieve stable peace. Margaret Gowing has claimed that Parliament did not have a say or interest in, Amity, an affective as well as pragmatic political relationship, was the primary mechanism of mid-Tudor foreign policy. The recent discovered state of t, influence on the country‟s foreign policy at the time. Nigeria Foreign Policy, 1960-2011: FiftyOne Years of Conceptual Confusion // Modern Ghana. A theory of foreign policy aims to explain what makes a state to employ a certain type of foreign policy at a specific point of time as Rose (1998) has defined: A theory of foreign policy is able to ‘explain what states try to achieve in the external realm and when they try to achieve it’ (Rose 1998, p.145). Due to the urgent and important nature of atomic matters, Parliament managed to gain access to them. Further reading. Rather, they asserted that loving friends at once promoted each other’s strategic advantage and growth in virtue. The chief proponent of this theory is Hans Morgenthau. So this, During the first republic, what was prominent was pro-, government was precipitated by the action Fra, being imported through the ports by the for, civil servants of Grenada. The paper therefore posits that ensuring future stability in the region would require investments in education, infrastructure, poverty alleviation and good governance initiatives, all of which are critical to addressing the broader causes and spread of insecurity and violent extremism in the Sahel region. This was especially the case if two parties challenged a consensus in the international community. Such reality, as in the case of Nigeria, is the Boko Haram insurgency. changes in Nigerian foreign policy are the products of corresponding changes in the above-mentioned factors as well as the international environment. in Nigeria‟s foreign policy. Procedures like parliamentary questions and adjournment debates enhanced Parliament’s capability to supervise the government, which limited government’s options. South African Foreign Policy and African Drivers A state 4) This led to problems in implementing policy 5) The Americans were reluctant to continue the atomic co-operation and seem to have applied “atomic diplomacy” against the British in order to enhance their own position in the post-war world. Interest, Continuities and Flaws in Nigeria Foreign Nigeria tower far above any other African country. Nigeria is an important actor on the African and global stage. All of these contradicting paradigms affected the British government’s possibilities of conducting atomic foreign policy. Successive leadership of the country has hidden under the cover of national interest to perpetuate their individual interests. Theory and Reality in Foreign Policy Making: Nigeriaafter the Second Republic (Atlantic Highland, Humanities Press International, 1989) pp. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Programme. The data collected were presented in tables using frequency table as well as Pearson Product moment correlation coefficient, to test hypothesis. He considers many historical successes and failures, including the onset of friendship between the United States and Great Britain in the early twentieth century, the Concert of Europe, which preserved peace after 1815 but collapsed following revolutions in 1848, and the remarkably close partnership of the Soviet Union and China in the 1950s, which descended into open rivalry by the 1960s.In a world where conflict among nations seems inescapable,How Enemies Become Friendsoffers critical insights for building lasting peace. The study adopted the descriptive survey design. It reflects Aron’s conviction that foreign policy and systemic dynamics must not be separated: he examines (1) theory (focused equally on the unity, means, and goals of foreign policy, as well as international systems, polarity, and war), (2) sociology (the “determinants and constants” of foreign policy), (3) history (focused on the nuclear revolution), and (4) praxeology. ): Approaches in Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Using the National Interest Theory (NRT) for a historical-descriptive discourse, the underlying issues found include the fact that in the case of Nigeria, as vital as the concept is both to the existence of a nation and as a source for the analysis of foreign policy behaviour of states, national interest has been subject to exploitation. Notable scholars on Nigerian external relations such as Akinyemi, Aluko, Gambari, Birai etc demonstrated the influence of domestic conditions on the country’s attitude and behaviour to other actors in the international system. Ile Ife: College Press. decisions about its national life. Nigeria’s foreign policy from 1976 to 1979 placed her in a position that made other African countries to regard her as the “Power of Africa”. In, to the work of such organizations as the United, in this respect is the domestic environment which acts as the, developed by Charles Hermann in his article „Changing, From the foregoing, the narrative proves that, that each, stressed on word peace, the respect for sovereignty and, Programme. The Uses and Abuses of Amity in Mid-Tudor Diplomacy, 1542–1560. The aim of this research is to analyze the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, focusing on the various changes that took place in Nigerian foreign policy since Independent, and specifically upon the election of President M. Buhari. However, focusing o, Council. These however are still u, Africa as the Centre Piece of Nigeria's Foreign Policy, that does not take into consideration the peculiar p, encouragement that further the wheels of this foreign polic. Keywords: atomic bomb, atom, Great Britain, parliament, foreign policy, 1945, 1946, United States, Anglo-American relations. In fact, political friendship’s inherent legal ambiguity allowed the Tudors to work around the strictures of existing international treaties when diplomatic. In other words, national interest becomes different strokes for different folks, depending on how each perceives and wishes it. On the basis of what constitute Nigeria"s national interest has however remained a matter of intense argument and disagreement among scholars. Some people argue that this is a question of international relations theory and others say it is a question of foreign policy theory. regime // Journal of Education and Social Sciences. Mohammad Zaki bin Ahmad. had to the issue, combined to ensure that the Democrats failed to develop an effective foreign policy platform—particularly when running against a president believed to be so successful in that arena. Friendship was ultimately grounded in mutual trust, which was established by personal encounters and reinforced through law and ritual. January 2013, Vol. Its foreign practitioners and analysts often define Nigerian interests as operating within four concentric circles. comparative foreign policy analysis and more ambitious and effective means of moving beyond the conventional study of Great Power politics to a more global IR. Methodologically, it employs the use of descriptive analysis relying solely on secondary information for data generation and analysis. As such, Nigerian foreign policy didn"t just start at independence; it dates back to during the times of the Hausa emirates, the Igbo kingdoms, the Benin kingdom and the Oyo empires. Jean-Frédéric Morin and Jonathan Paquin, Foreign Policy Analysis: A Toolbox, Palgrave, 2018. Damilola and t, attempting to answer the following question: which are the most influential factors in shaping. It was mere hype. Which also however connotes the strategy or planned course of action, related to external relations developed by decision makers aimed at achieving specific goals. interest in nigerian foreign policy: A focus on abacha Through compelling analysis and rich historical examples that span the globe and range from the, This analysis uses the case of the 1956 American presidential election between Adlai Stevenson and Dwight Eisenhower to highlight the ways that an obsession with foreign relations could prove problematic to a campaign. Overview of National most important factors in this analysis is both domestic and external. Nigerian relations during the whole regime. All rights reserved. In negotiating amity diplomats appealed to moral, affective, and contractual obligations simultaneously. All too frequently, the analysis and understanding of the dynamics of these conflicts are reduced to primitive arguments on ‘weak governance’ and corruption as an explanation for state failure and internal conflict. The study is an assessment of Nigeria’s foreign policy under the administration of President Goodluck Jonathan in relation with ECOWAS. For the purpose of this paper, foreign policy is viewed as a strategic planned course of action that aims at achieving a particular goal based on specific reasons in the international and domestic system, at a particular point in time. This is because Afrocentric foreign policy commitment overwhelmingly overshadows domestic reality. To this end, the analysis was done thematically and the results or findings show that the logic and the instrumentality of domestic development linkage theory in foreign policy is virtually lacking in Nigerian foreign policy behaviour. Can rival nations become partners and establish a lasting and stable peace?How Enemies Become Friendsprovides a bold and innovative account of how nations escape geopolitical competition and replace hostility with friendship. circumstances changed and it became necessary to reevaluate relationships abroad. Navigate; Linked Data; Dashboard; Tools / Extras; Stats; Share . Conceptualising national stability and growth Nwankwo (Nwankwo O, 2013). Steve Smith, Amelia Hadley and Tim Dunne (eds), Foreign Policy: Theories, Actors, Cases, 1st ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Since independence, with Jaja Wachuku as the first Minister for Foreign Affairs and Commonwealth Relations, later called External Affairs, Nigerian foreign policy has been characterised by a focus on Africa as a regional power and by attachment to several fundamental principles: African unity and independence; capability to exercise hegemonic influence in the region: peaceful settlement of disputes; non-alignment and non-intentional interference in the internal affairs of other nations… This empirical study uses formerly secret archival sources of the government, diplomatic correspondence, and Hansard Parliamentary debates, supplemented with press material. Nigeria Foreign Policy, 1960-2011: FiftyOne Years of Conceptual Confusion, Atah Pine. While Africa remains the centre piece of our foreign policy, we cannot operate within a series of concentric circles which now effectively guides our behavior on the African and world scene. The findings also shows that more than external challenges, it is the internal challenges that are dampening Nigeria's attainment of positive international image and national transformation. It can also be seen as a set of principles that define the objective a given state pursues in process of its interactions with other international actors. It sets out to explain these changes and classify them through the analysis of Ogidan.P. thirteenth century through the present, foreign policy expert Charles Kupchan explores how adversaries can transform enmity into amity--and he exposes prevalent myths about the causes of peace.Kupchan contends that diplomatic engagement with rivals, far from being appeasement, is critical to rapprochement between adversaries. It found out that the foreign policy initiatives of President Jonathan are focused more than ever before on Nigeria’s domestic priorities especially as captured in the vision 20:2020 document. I claim that 1) in 1945-1946 there were five turning points when the British policy changed quite drastically back and forth. It gives a useful balance of analysis on socio-cultural and environmental dynamics which transcend national boundaries, such as the influx and out-flux of refugee flows, insurgency, transnational conflict and crime in the Sahel. Foreign policy is basically the mirror of domestic policy, but it will be insufficient, this be the only focus on analysis, as the most important factors in this analysis is both domestic and external. The paper holds that there is a mix of internal causes and exogenous factors determining the course of Nigerian foreign policy. Identifying the welfare of the State and its people as the ultimate goal of foreign policy, it interrogated the relative extent this goal is the driving force of Nigeria’s foreign policy under Jonathan. research the theory of national interest is a guidepost while content and discourse analysis are employed as method of data analysis. 139 . To this end, now the understanding of foreign policy, it"s that type of action a state embarks upon in its interactions with other member states in the international environment, in the process of striving to attain its goals and objectives. Against the backdrop of Nigeria’s comprehensive framework for transforming herself into one of the twenty leading economies by the year 2020, this paper examines the foreign policy initiatives of current Nigeria’s President Goodluck Jonathan. Keywords: Nigeria, National Interest, Foreign Policy, Abacha, Regime. This work is necessitated on the premise that no state in the modern times can avoid involvement in international affairs, and this involvement must be systematic and based on certain principles. These findings show the interdependence of the government, Parliament and officials in the atomic matters. A constant feature that has remained central to Nigeria’s foreign policy architecture has been Africa, with preoccupations concerning fighting colonialism, apartheid and the discrimination of black peoples in the African continent and elsewhere in the world. This period is very important as it marked a radical turn in the country’s foreign policy. The paper models domestic (internal) and cross-border dynamics of instability through the lens of 'ABM modelling-AfriLand-Rebel'. Damilola, 201, Thirdly, the term “area boy diplomacy” became famous, Nigeria‟s foreign relations, as was able to, program, which reverse the negative trend that. Olajide Aluko (1981) states three issues with which he referred to as vital elements of Nigeria"s national interest, these are self-preservation of the country, the defense and maintenance of the country"s independence and the economic and social well-being of the people. Africa face-off was highly welcomed by Nigerians. again received in the comity of Nations. 1. www.hrmars.com/journals, Nigeria and the global powers: Continuity and change in policy and Perceptions, South African Foreign Policy and African Drivers Programme. Boko Haram activities in Nigeria have led to negative reactions from groups and nations that have been affected by its activities in the country thereby leading to deterioration of foreign relations of these countries with Nigeria. Focusing primarily on Stevenson’s advisors, long-standing problems in the Democrats’ strategy on foreign relations, coupled with the emotional attachments that several key advisors, The atomic bomb shaped the post-war world and the relations between Britain and the United States. in Business and Social Sciences. It will explain why IR the comity of nation and some major sanction were lifted. The main objective of this paper is to identify the relationship between foreign policy, international image and national transformation using Nigeria as focus from independence to date. The goal of this study is to illustrate the factors which, within one year, led to a change from public, proactive and internationalist policy to a secret, reactive and realist approach. The notion of Parliament’s narrow role in foreign and defence policy has also been suggested in most research relating to parliamentary history. The project aims to introduce researchers and readers to different key concepts and debates and to emphasize African scholarly approaches to addressing conflict and building peace in war affected African societies and relations with other states for the purpose of development and security. This was because 2) the role of British officials and, thus, path dependency on previous decisions was greater than has been considered. 3) This did not entirely succeed due to the British parliament’s supervision. The paper reserves that foreign policy is very sensitive and delicate to the existence of any state. Introduction Man is a social being, which means friendships and relations have been in existence between humans since the beginning of human creation, arguably the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle once said "man by nature is a political animal". For our purposes, we can consider them the same issue. In his comment, Dr. Okon Ankpo, the then Minister of External Affairs, said that “Nigeria’s foreign policy was constructed in concentric circles with Africa in the centre.” The “atomic question” also contributed to a gradual change in the British political culture, affecting in part to parliamentarisation of atomic and foreign affairs. This, the paper argues, marks a shift in paradigm when compared with the past when African issues dominated Nigeria’s attention. It also, ascending of Goodluck Jonathan to the height of pr, trip to the United States and other Western countries. Pre Theories And Theories Of Foreign Policy Making Pre Theories And Theories Of Foreign Policy Making by Emmanuel N. Amadife. The innermost circle represents Nigeria and its immediate neighbors; the second circle revolves around Nigeria’s relations with its west African neighbors; the third circle focuses on continental African issues; and the fourth circle involves Nigeria’s relations with entities outside Africa. This is because, there seems to be a debate as to whether Nigeria’s foreign policy has been consistent or it has been changing. Previous research has presented limited views on British early atomic proliferation in the contexts of domestic policy and Anglo-American relations. The study aimed at examining whether or not Nigeria’s foreign policy under former President onathan contributed in improving the image of Nigeria globally. The next section of the paper accomplishes this analytic move by examining Nigerian foreign policy. … They informed Clement Attlee’s government so that the regime changed its views and pursued secret atomic co-operation for gaining the atomic bomb. As a result, Nigeria as a colonial state was brought into the diplomatic world not as an independent state. Occasional Paper Series (SAIIA) No 96. It examines the post-Gaddafi Libya and its export of instability in the region. The propelling force of a foreign policy of a state it"s the state"s national interest (Ade-Ibijola, Aderemi Opeyemi, 2013). Theories Of US Foreign Policy. Noting that challenges still abound in all sectors, the paper makes recommendations aimed at improving Nigeria’s chances of attaining the goals and objectives of Nigeria’s vision. It is also the analysis problem. Moreover, these changes and their causes contributed to the partial failure of the Anglo-American atomic collaboration in 1946. colonial state was brought into the diplomatic world not as a, that define the objective a given state pursues in process of its interactions with other, related to external relations developed by decision makers aimed at, But on the other hand, Olusanya and Akindele, economic well-being of the Nigerian citizens an, undertaking an analysis of Nigeria foreign polic, matters, theories become useful tools. Pre-Theories and Theories of Foreign Policy-Making provides the first comprehensive theoretical study focusing only on United States policy toward the Nigerian/Biafran conflict, which occurred from 1967-1970. Quite often under scored the potency of its domestic contents has however remained matter. Safeguarding a nation '' s national interest theories of nigeria foreign policy Continuities and Flaws in Nigeria foreign policy under the of... In R. B. Farrell ( Hg occasional paper Series ( SAIIA ) No, https //www.modernghana.com/news/354264/nigeria! Nigeria gives Trump a late foreign policy, 1960-2011: FiftyOne Years of Conceptual Confusion, Atah.... I claim that 1 ) in 1945-1946 there were five turning points when the Parliament... Data generation and analysis data ; Dashboard ; Tools / Extras ; ;. Friendship ’ s foreign policy pronouncement theories of nigeria foreign policy domestic politics limit its effectiveness as collaborative. Friendship and utilitarian public amity // Journal of Education and Social Sciences Jonathan in relation with ECOWAS export of in! And important nature of atomic matters, Parliament and officials in the atomic matters, Parliament managed to access! Became obvious, that it was often the first step toward a formal alliance, but it not... 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( Chidozie F, Ibietan J, Ujara E, 2014 ) challenges include crisis., 2013 ) constitute a binding agreement in itself practitioners and analysts often define Nigerian interests as operating within concentric... Pc, phones or tablets of any state the course of Nigerian foreign.... The citizen centred, Overview of national interest is pivotal to its foreign policy President Goodluck Jonathan relation... These changes and classify them through the lens of 'ABM modelling-AfriLand-Rebel ': which are most! Is the condiment that adds taste to the urgent and important nature of atomic matters, Parliament managed gain... Hans Morgenthau factors in shaping emotive personal friendship and utilitarian public amity the case if two parties a... Students pursuing international relations and foreign policy-related courses must have to deal with such kind of assignments, PC phones... 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Study in Nigeria foreign policy Paquin, foreign policy of decolonization of African countries // Journal. That everything was ran by the government, diplomatic correspondence, and contractual obligations simultaneously made it to.