We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. This cool-headed man of genius with an erratic vein of sexual exuberance undoubtedly changed the course of history at the western end of the Old World. In the last year of his life, Caesar developed personal control of the coinage to a point at which it lay ready to hand for Augustus to use later as a fully imperial instrument. Already, from 46. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman dictator, politician and military general who played a critical role in the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. At the Battle of Alesia, in 52 BCE, Caesar defeated the Gallic leader Vercingetorix and completed the conquest of Gaul. Many believed that it was only a matter of time before the Republic would fall. At its height in A.D. 117, Rome controlled all the land from Western Europe to the Middle East. He used part of his growing wealth from Gallic loot to hire political agents in Rome. In 49 bce he marched, within a single campaigning season, from the Rubicon to Brundisium and from Brundisium to Spain. He was awarded a consulship by the senate. The mark of Caesar’s genius in his writings is that though they were written for propaganda they are nevertheless of outstanding literary merit. Pompey was now the sole military and political power in Rome and had the senate declare Caesar’s governorship of Gaul terminated and, further, ordered him to return to Rome as a private citizen. In this, too, he proved a success and became well known as an eloquent speaker. Upon his release, however, Caesar made good on that threat. Back in Rome, however, The First Triumvirate had disintegrated. Rising now in prominence in Rome, Caesar had enough prestige to effectively support Gnaeus Pompeius (later known as Pompey the Great) for a generalship. A superb general and politician, Julius Caesar (c.100 BC – 44 BC / Reigned 46 – 44 BC) changed the course of Roman history. As for the lost Anticato, a reply to Cicero’s eulogy of Caesar’s dead opponent Marcus Porcius Cato, it is a testimony to Caesar’s political insight that he made the time to write it, in spite of the overwhelming military, administrative, and legislative demands on him. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Julius Caesar (100—44 BCE) changed Rome forever. Julius Caesar. The accounts are written in the form of terse, dry, factual reports that look impersonal and objective, yet every recorded fact has been carefully selected and presented. To some the Roman citizenry was falling victim to moral decay. Julius Caesar, in full Gaius Julius Caesar, (born July 12/13, 100? In this, as in his time as a soldier, Caesar was successful and, when Sulla died, he decided to return to Rome and try his luck as an orator (a modern-day lawyer). He is remembered as being the leader and dictator of Rome during its most prosperous reign and Empire. Still, he was stripped of his position as priest and his wife’s dowry was confiscated. Caesar’s most amazing characteristic is his energy, intellectual and physical. The great conspiracy against Julius Caesar - Kathryn Tempest. According to the 1st century C.E. 4. a tyrant or dictator. Rather than returning to Rome as ordered, Caesar crossed the Rubicon River with his legions and marched on the city in 49 BCE. As long as Caesar was a public servant he was safe from prosecution by his Optimate enemies for his legal indiscretions but, once his consulship ended, he was sure to be indicted. Related Content It was rumoured that during his first visit to the East he had had homosexual relations with King Nicomedes of Bithynia. Further, Caesar was deeply in debt, both financially and politically, to Crassus, and needed to raise both money and his prestige. Caesar substituted for the Roman oligarchy an autocracy that could never afterward be abolished. In time, the former allies went to war and met in final battle. When the Germanic tribes seemed threatening to invade, Caesar built a bridge over the Rhine River, marched his legions across in a show of force, then marched them back and had the bridge dismantled. By liquidating the scandalous and bankrupt rule of the Roman nobility, he gave the Roman state—and with it the Greco-Roman civilization—a reprieve that lasted for more than 600 years in the East and for more than 400 years in the relatively backward West. He did not succeed, however. Mark Antony later allied himself with Cleopatra VII of Egypt following the victory and, Octavian thought, presented a substantial threat to Rome. 2. a title of the Roman emperors from Augustus to Hadrian, and later of the heirs presumptive. When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. to A.D. 476. When he was sixteen, his father died and Caesar became the head of the family. Rise to Power Although he was born into the Julian gens, one of the oldest patrician families in Rome, Caesar was always a member of the democratic or popular party. B.C.–44 B.C., Roman statesman and general. There was street violence and rioting. Caesar’s physical vitality perhaps partly accounts for his sexual promiscuity, which was out of the ordinary, even by contemporary Greek and Roman standards. For the next 150 years, Cato the martyr continued to be a nuisance, sometimes a menace, to Caesar’s successors. The first Roman emperor was Augustus Caesar, who came to power after the assassination of Julius Caesar, his great-uncle.Augustus helped restore the city of Rome and secured its frontiers during his reign. Deciding that belonging to the priesthood would bring the most benefit to the family, he managed to have himself nominated as the new High Priest of Jupiter. Caesar was targeted and fled Rome but his sentence was lifted through the intercession of his mother’s family. Julius Caesar: Great general; became dictator of Rome: Ides of March 44 B.C. Returning to Rome with high honors, Caesar entered into a business/political agreement with Pompey and Crassus, in 60 BCE, dubbed The First Triumvirate by modern scholars and historians (though no one in ancient Rome used that term). "Julius Caesar." The first triumvirate and the conquest of Gaul, Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45. Mark, Joshua J. (The merciless Sulla abdicated and died in his bed.). He is said to have repeatedly told them that, upon his release, he would hunt them down and have them crucified for the affront to his family and personal dignity and this threat the pirates understood as a joke. While it may have been reassuring to follow Julius Caesar into battle, it … His political achievement required ability, in effect amounting to genius, in several different fields, including administration and generalship besides the minor arts of wire pulling and propaganda. His accounts of his wars are subtly contrived to make the unsuspecting reader see Caesar’s acts in the light that Caesar chooses. But if he had not also been something more than this he would not have been the supremely great man that he undoubtedly was. How about his life when he started losing his hair? Mark Antony turned the tide of Roman popular opinion against the conspirators and, allied with Octavian, defeated the forces of Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BCE. He initiated many reforms including further land redistribution among the poor, land reform for veterans which eliminated the need to displace other citizens, as well as political reforms which proved unpopular with the senate. At the battle of Thapsus (near modern Tunisia) Caesar’s legions defeated the forces of the Optimate faction in 46 BCE and, in July of that year, he returned to Rome triumphant. Caesar was right, from his point of view, to try to put salt on Cato’s tail. He dodged proscription and pirates, changed the calendar and the army. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 28 Apr 2011. It lies in the dip between the southern end of the Viminal and the western end of the Esquiline hills. The concept of appealing to the people for support, rather than seeking approval from the Roman Senate or the other Patricians, would work well for Caesar later in life. https://www.ancient.eu/Julius_Caesar/. Cleopatra’s and Antony’s forces were defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE and they killed themselves a year later. (2011, April 28). When he was young, he got great … As a priest not only had to be of patrician stock, but married to a patrician, Caesar broke off his engagement to a plebian girl and married the patrician, Cornelia, daughter of a high profile and influential member of the Populares, Lucius Cinna. At Alexandria, probably aged 53, he saved himself from sudden death by his prowess as a swimmer. 13 Dec 2020. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. Besieged in the palace by the Egyptians under Achillas, Caesar and Cleopatra held out for six months until reinforcements arrived in March of 47 BCE and the Egyptian army was defeated. Julius Caesarby Georges Jansoone (CC BY-NC-SA). In 75 BCE, while sailing to Greece, Caesar was kidnapped by pirates and held for ransom. On March 15, 44 BCE, Caesar was assassinated by the senators in the portico of the basilica of Pompey the Great. Back in Rome, Caesar was elected military tribune and, his wife Cornelia having died, married Pompeia, a wealthy Optimate granddaughter of the Emperor Sulla. This was considered an act of war as the Rubicon was the border between the province of Gaul and Rome. Caesar's Campaign against the Belgaeby US Military Academy (Public Domain). Both held to the Populare ideology of Rome which favored democratization of government and more rights for the lower class as opposed to the Optimate factions’ claim of the superiority of the nobility and traditional Roman values which favored the upper classes. License. Roman political order was in chaos. Gaul, too, would have sunk deeper into barbarism when the Franks overran it, if it had not been associated with the civilized Mediterranean world for more than 500 years as a result of Caesar’s conquest. Julius Caesar—facts and information Julius Caesar transformed Rome from a republic to an empire, grabbing power through ambitious political reforms. Probably Caesar looked upon these as trivial recreations. "Julius Caesar." There is no doubt of Caesar’s heterosexual affairs, many of them with married women. The assassins, however, made the mistake of neglecting to plan what they would do following Caesar’s death and, in so doing, mistakenly allowed Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar’s cousin and right-hand man, to live. Caesar and Cleopatra seemed to have become lovers shortly after meeting, perhaps even that very night, and he remained in Egypt with her nine months. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Julius_Caesar/. He realized that Cato, in giving his life for his cause (46 bce), had made himself posthumously into a much more potent political force than he had ever been in his lifetime. According to the historian Durant, he then secretly sent for Cleopatra VII, co-regent with Ptolomey XIII who had been deposed and was in exile, who had herself smuggled through enemy lines rolled up inside a carpet (according to other sources, Cleopatra took the initiative herself, recognizing in Caesar her only hope to regain the throne). Following their deaths, Octavian ordered Cleopatra’s son, Caesarion, murdered. Written by Joshua J. First, let's dispel the age-old rumor that Caesar was the original, or at … For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. Under the Roman Empire the Near East was impregnated with Hellenism for six or seven more centuries. Caesar, however, named his grandnephew, Gaius Octavius Thurinus (Octavian) heir. All Caesar’s speeches and writings, lost and extant, apparently served political purposes. Born in 100 BC, Caesar inherited his name from a prestigious family with ancient pedigree. This would mean Caesar could be prosecuted for his actions when he was consul. If he did in fact have an affair with Pompey’s wife, Mucia, he was risking his entente with Pompey. A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. He reformed the calendar, created a police force, ordered the re-building of Carthage, and abolished the tax system, among many other pieces of legislation (of which quite a few were long-time Populare goals). https://taylorandjustinnhd.weebly.com/rome-during-caesars-rule.html He turned his funeral orations for his wife and for his aunt to account, for political propaganda. The general and dictator Julius Caesar helped to build ancient Rome into a mighty empire. The Germans understood the message and never invaded. A more notorious, though not quite so hazardous, affair was his liaison with Cleopatra. 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