The top five imported products at risk of modern slavery were identified from an original list of 15 products considered at risk of modern slavery. And in early 2018, Black history experts told a Senate committee on human rights that the government should apologize and pay reparations to descendants of slaves. Kyle G. Brown is a freelance journalist based in Paris. In 1793 Upper Canada (now Ontario) passed the Anti‐slavery Act. More than 50,000 people took part in the study, which was able to identify more details of the "genetic impact" the trade has had on present-day populations in the Americas. It received Royal Assent on August 28, 1833, and took effect on August 1, 1834. It is common knowledge that we saved runaway slaves from the United States, but few know that Africans and Indigenous peoples were bought, sold and exploited, right here. The Standing Committee on Human Resources, Skills and Social Development (HUMA) recommended in its 2016 review of the TFWP that the government abolish the ‘employer-specific work permit’ that ties workers to a specific employer and introduce pathways to permanent residency for all temporary foreign workers.62 Though the government announced some reforms to the TFWP as part of the 2017 federal budget, it rejected the recommendation of ending work permits that are tied to employers, thus rendering temporary migrant workers at risk of exploitation.63 There are also still significant barriers for temporary foreign workers to obtain permanent residence at this stage.64, In 2016, Ontario introduced its first Director of the newly established Provincial Anti-Human Trafficking Coordination Office who will be responsible for coordinating the implementation of Ontario’s Strategy to End Human Trafficking, working across ministries and in collaboration with the law enforcement, justice, social services, health, education, and child welfare sectors.65. [15, https://knowthechain.org/wp-content/uploads/KTC-SugarcaneReport-Final_August-2017.pdf, http://dx.doi.org/10.14217/9781848599451-en, https://www.uclalawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Bourgeois-final_8.15.pdf, http://www.ourcommons.ca/Content/Committee/421/HUMA/Brief/BR8374833/br-external/MigrantWorkerSolidarityNetwork-e.pdf. For more information on the Nevsun case, please see: Yapp, S 2018, The Nevsun Effect: A New Era of Corporate Responsibility, Walk Free Foundation Insight Series 02. The largest sectors represented are the banking sector (5) and software and services (4), followed by consumer durables and apparel (2). The statements analysed by the Modern Slavery Act Project were the most recently available statements at the time the research was conducted – in most cases, this would be the 2016 statement. Migrant Worker Solidarity Network Manitoba 2016. Box 500 Station A Toronto, ON Canada, M5W 1E6. Slavery had a direct impact on the classism system that is still very apparent in the society today. From racial slurs to microaggressions, racism remains entrenched in Canadian society, and its root causes may reach further back than we think. This documentary chronicles slavery as it occurred "in Canada" prior to Confederation and refers to colonial Canada. A Viola Desmond primer. All provinces should establish a coordinating body responsible for coordinating the implementation of the province’s strategy to combat human trafficking, similar to Ontario’s newly established Provincial Anti-Human Trafficking Coordination Office. ‘Government of Canada takes step towards ethical procurement of apparel’ 2017. The Code, used by Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC), the government of Canada’s central purchasing agency, is being updated to align with the government’s social and sustainable procurement policy objectives. For the first time, the topic of enslavement has been included in the 2013 revised Ontario Social Studies, History, and Geography curriculum. Indeed, while shareholder primacy has long been the legal bedrock of corporate governance in the US, two recent well-publicized developments suggest that boards are beginning to adopt a broader perspective in the exercise of their fiduciary duties. The UK Modern Slavery Act Research project employs a crowdsourcing approach to reviewing and assessing the statements housed on the BHRRC platform, recognising the value of having a fully transparent platform, but also the enormous amount of time and resources it would take to conduct this analysis. The image of Canada as a safe haven for enslaved African Americans was born, and thousands of fugitives and free Blacks would arrive on Canadian soil between 1834 and the early 1860s. Six further claims have been filed against Nevsun on behalf of 59 additional plaintiffs on the same basis. Legacy The Abolition Act in Upper Canada and court decisions in Nova Scotia in the 1790s contributed greatly to a decline of African enslavement in Canada, and made Canada a safe haven for those seeking freedom and an important base for the abolitionist movement. The results of a survey of 33 Filipino live-in care workers between 2012 and 2014 found evidence of withholding immigration documents and threat of deportation (reported by six workers), physical violence (five workers), accusations (18), insults (15), psychological, moral and sexual harassment (13), and different types of threats (15), such as threat of being reported to the immigration authorities. Techniques used by traffickers include building dependence by buying gifts and posing as boyfriends.32 Younger male members of street gangs simulate affection as a tool to recruit young women.33 The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) also identify young people and individuals already working in sex industries to be most vulnerable to modern slavery.34, Marginalised and disadvantaged communities are reportedly more vulnerable to forced sexual exploitation, including women from Indigenous communities, young women and girls, migrants, and children in protection services.35 According to a 2014 survey of 266 Canadian front-line response organisations conducted by the Canadian Women’s Foundation, 51 percent of trafficked girls had been in the child welfare system and 51 percent of trafficked women and girls were Indigenous. Pseudonyms will no longer be permitted. The Canadian government publishes statistics on human trafficking convictions and identified cases. What's changed? PSPC also announced it will meet with suppliers, industry associations and other stakeholders in the apparel industry to discuss current practices on ethical manufacturing and sourcing throughout their supply chains.70 The government of Canada, through PSPC, reportedly has active contracts for the procurement of apparel totalling more than Can$640 million (US$509 million71).72, In 2016, the Walk Free Foundation and WikiRate73 partnered to develop a UK Modern Slavery Act Research project that would contribute to transparency on corporate action on modern slavery by enabling members of the public to view and assess modern slavery statements produced under Section 54 of the UK Modern Slavery Act.74 Section 54 requires businesses either headquartered or conducting business in the UK and with an annual turnover of over GBP36 million per annum to release an annual statement on the actions they are taking to respond to modern slavery.75 There are an estimated 12,000 to 17,000 statements that will be produced under this reporting requirement, many of which are housed on the Business and Human Rights Resource Centre (BHRRC) Modern Slavery Registry.76. Former Canadian parliamentary poet laureate George Elliott Clarke was commissioned by IDEAS to write two poems for this series. Most of the first Black people living in colonial Canada were enslaved, and even after abolition, they were often landless and poor. Listen to Part 1 of this series: Canada's slavery secret: The whitewashing of 200 years of enslavement. Nelson notes, “I never had a Canadian student enter my class on day one knowing that slavery transpired in Canada.” While the majority of Canadians, including Nelson’s students, can attest to a general knowledge of the Underground Railroad—a movement that accounts for approximately 30 years of Canadian history—most are ignorant of a long history of slavery in their country. The Act was one of the most controversial elements of the 1850 compromise and heightened Northern fears of a "slave power conspiracy. Introduce a free and publicly accessible repository to file all modern slavery statements to ensure businesses can be held accountable for non-compliance. It was being domestics. Pagtakhan, R 2017, ‘Pathway to Canadian citizenship needed for all temporary foreign workers: Pagtakhan’. Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, 2016. Canadian boards are facing mounting pressures to address a broader range of issues in light of a burgeoning movement in American corporate governance urging boards to look beyond the interests of their shareholders. Investigations of the Toronto and Halifax police forces found that Black Canadians are stopped and searched three times more often than white Canadians. This legislation also made Canada free land for enslaved American Blacks. We can’t forget that slavery was legal in New France and in British North America until 1834. 77. Exchange rates as at 17 April 2018: US$1=Can$1.25737. Introduce a National Referral Mechanism (NRM) to ensure that all victims of modern slavery are centrally registered by authorities and data is reported annually. Follow through with reviewing government procurement guidelines and policies to introduce measures prohibiting that government agencies use businesses suspected of using forced labour or purchasing products that were made using forced labour. Since the 16th century, settlers, officials and historians have used the term "Canada" — often interchangeably with other names, from New France and British North America to Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Canadian governments have issued apologies and compensation to LGBTQ communities, victims of Japanese internment and families affected by the Chinese head tax. Ministry of Community and Social Services 2016. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons 2017. Public Works and Government Services Canada 2017. Ensure more effective investigations and prosecutions of modern slavery crimes by removing any barriers that prevent federal law enforcement from collecting sufficient evidence, such as jurisdictional constraints. Is there a connection between the enslavement of Black Canadians and their overwhelming presence in the criminal justice system today? Business and Human Rights Resource Centre 2018. The Global Slavery Index. While Canada does not currently have federal legislation that requires large businesses to publicly report on steps taken to eliminate modern slavery within their business and supply chains, there is a growing impetus for such legislation in Canada.82 Canada also has an ongoing parliamentary inquiry on child labour and modern slavery that has discussed the question of supply chain transparency, among other issues.83, In a major step forward, the Canadian government announced on 17 January 2018 that it will create an independent Canadian Ombudsman for Responsible Enterprise (CORE). Twenty statements have been released to date by Canadian companies. Grant, M 2016, ‘Amanda McGee sentenced to 8 years for human trafficking, sexual assault’. Bourgeois, R 2015, Colonial Exploitation: The Canadian State and the Trafficking of IndigenousWomen and Girls in Canada. Unlike our American cousins, Canada did not itself end its slavery ― in fact, in 1777 slaves began fleeing Canada for Vermont, which had just abolished slavery. An Economy Built on Slavery. A 2017 report by the United Nations Human Rights Working Group called on Canada to recognize the lasting damage done by slavery and segregation. "If we are looking at one of the legacies of slavery in Canada, it made white people white and Black people Black. As part of the act, slavery was abolished in most British colonies which resulted in around 800,000 slaves being freed in the Caribbean as well as South Africa and a small amount in Canada. Part of Walk Free’s approach is to periodically publish the study, which as of 2018 states that over 40 million people across the globe live in modern slavery. Comments on this story are moderated according to our Submission Guidelines. It said these systems "lie at the core" of persistent, structural racism, which took hold during the 17th-19th centuries. 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